A discussion about the Properties of the Autonomic Nervous Sytem sub systems

Purpose of this webpage

The purpose of this web page is to define and discuss the properties of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) of human beings and to provide support for these properties by citing supportive material in the scientific literature. I am writing this page because I have been found myself inventing properties of the ANS which may or may not be politically correct, (i.e. currently approved by leaders in the field) .

Purpose

To establish Scientific background for propositions of the relationship between emotions and autonomic nervous system activity

PropositionEvidenceAction
Anger means active SNSEkman (1983)
” Reciprocal sympathetic activation” Kreibig (p 400, 2020)
Kyeong(2017p.7)
“During the gratitude intervention, we observed decreased HR compared to the resentment intervention. As an
audio-visual guide transitions from the respiration phase (during the first minute) to the intervention phase (the
next 4minutes), the participant’s HR gradually decreased during the gratitude intervention, but increased during the resentment intervention. These features may be a result of response by the parasympathetic or sympathetic
nervous systems, which inhibit and activate physiological responses, respectively.
Fear means active SNS
Fight flee freeze means active SNS
Acceptance, peace, calm, relaxation implies less fear, means more active PSNSKreibig(2010 ) note similar to relaxation response
Connection, consideration of others means more active PSNS
Gratitude means more active PSNSKyeong et al(2017 p 7 ) associated gratitude with decreased HR and suggested may be PSNS “During the gratitude intervention, we observed decreased HR compared to the resentment intervention. As an
audio-visual guide transitions from the respiration phase (during the first minute) to the intervention phase (the
next 4minutes), the participant’s HR gradually decreased during the gratitude intervention, but increased during
the resentment intervention. These features may be a result of response by the parasympathetic or sympathetic
nervous systems, which inhibit and activate physiological responses, respectively26.
Humility means more active PSNS
“Acting as if” makes shift happen
Pupillary Response
Emotional Regulation
Heart Rate Variability
Propositions that need to be verified.

Overview of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

The ANS can easily be described as consisting of three subsystems.

Next we will consider the respective properties of the two major divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System.,

FeelingSympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System
Anger(approach and withdrawal, defensiveness (self and other) indignationEkman (1983)
” Reciprocal sympathetic activation” Kreibig (p 400, 2020)
Kyeong et al (2017 p. 7 ) associated resentment with increased HR and suggested may be SNS
Anxiety (Dental performance, agitation)
Disgust (disease , food)(Kreibig , p404, 2010 Depends on causeEkman (1983)
(Kreibig , p 404, 2010 Depends on cause
Embarrassment(social anxiety shame rejection)(Kreibig , p 404, 2010 )Not enough data(Kreibig , p 404, 2010 Not enough data)
Sadness (achievement failure, dejection, depressionKreibig ( p406 2010) Depends on imminences of loss .Kreibig ( p406 2010) Depends on imminences of loss .
Negative Emotions
EmotionSympathetic
Nervous
System
Parasympathetic
Nervous
System
Affection( love tenderness , sympathy)No conclusive statement (Kreibig 2010)No conclusive statement (Kreibig 2010)
AcceptanceElise et al (2015) no direct reference to autonomic system
Amusement Koenig (2010 p 406) No summaryKoenig (2010 p 406) No summary
Anticipatory pleasure (appetite, sexual arousal)
Calm (see acceptance))
Contentment (pleasure, serenity peacefulness, relaxation)Kreibig(2010 ) note similar to relaxation response
Connection
Emotional Regulation
Happiness (except in response to slapstick comedy)
Humility
Joy (elation)
GratitudeKyeong et al(2017 p 7 ) associated gratitude with decreased HR and suggested may be PSNS
Peaceful
Pleasure, anticipatory
Pride
Relief (safety)
Positive emotions
EmotionSympathetic
Nervous
System
Parasympathetic
Nervous
System
SurpriseEkman (1983)
Suspense
Emotions without clear Valence Connections (Kreibig 2010)

Sub System discussions

Activity Subsystem

Fear Subsystem

a

Feeling Subsystem

Future Subsystem

Interconnectedness Subsystem

Heart Rate Variability Subsystem

We can observe the activity levels of the SNS and PSNS by doing a spectral analysis of HRV.
Shaffer and Ginsberg (2017) give an overview of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and state “Two distinct but overlapping processes generate short-term HRV measurements. The first source is a complex and dynamic relationship between the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches. The second source includes the regulatory mechanisms that control HR via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA).”). (p 5 of 36)
The HF or respiratory band is (0.15–0.40 Hz)
“The assumptions underlying the LF/HF ratio is that LF power may be generated by the SNS while HF power is produced by the PNS. In this model, a low LF/HF ratio reflects parasympathetic dominance.” (p 11 of 36)
“This is seen when we conserve energy and engage in tend-and-befriend behaviors.” In contrast, a high LF/HF ratio indicates sympathetic dominance, which occurs when we engage in fight-or-flight behaviors or parasympathetic withdrawal.” {p11/36)

Vagus Nerve Subsystem

References


Claisse et al ( 2017) Heart rate variability changes and emotion regulation abilities in short- and long-term abstinent alcoholic individuals

Need ecknam and Kreibig citations

Kyeong, S., Kim, J., Kim, D. et al. (2017) Effects of gratitude meditation on neural network functional connectivity and brain-heart coupling. Sci Rep 7, 5058 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05520-9

Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Volume 175, 1 June 2017, Pages 237-245

Shaffer. F and Ginsberg, J (201 7) An Overview of Heart Rate Variability Metrics and Norms. Public Health, 2017;5.;258. September 28,2017  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00258

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